- Preservation of health of healthy people and to help them attain the four principles of life (Purusharthas of life).
- Relief from the misery of sufferings.
- Ultimate aim is the attainment of salvation through liberation and God consciousness i.e. Moksha.
To achieve these objectives certain rules or principles of health care exercise, behaviour, seasonal regimens, rejuvenation ('rasayan') therapy, Panchakarma therapy and so on have been extensively described. In Ayurveda for treating the disease as an entity, two broad regimens are classified. The purification or elimination process which is known as 'Shodhan Chikitsa' includes 'Panchakarma Chikitsa' and the second is Suppressive, Palliative or corrective process known as 'Shaman Chikitsa'. Out of these two, Purification is ideal since it helps to remove the root of the disease. 'Palliative' treatment is also essential and it is comparable to present day's internal medicine.
From this it is understood that Ayurveda's approach towards individuals, diseases, drugs etc is basic, holistic and natural. Ayurveda believes in principle that whatever existed in universe can be seen in the body, therefore diet and drugs are derived from natural resources and are to be used according to elements ('mahabhootas'), humours ('doshas') and individual constitutions ('prakrutis').
Ayurveda has accepted the part of ideology from Sankhya - Visheshik - Nyaya - Mimansa - Uttar Mimansa, these are the different schools of philosophies and they put forward the theories of evolution of the world. Accordingly Ayurveda has accepted that there is existence of two base line components, Supreme Soul ('Purusha') and Basic Matter ('Prakruti'). Basic Matter ('Prakruti') gets activated when Supreme Soul ('Purusha') touches it, which helps to start the evolution process. Therefore the actual body of the living being is made of five elements ('Panch Mahabhootas') and Soul ('Atman') & Mind ('Mana') which acts as proper coordinators between these elements. Supreme Soul shows its existence in the living body as represented by Soul ('Atman') and Mind ('Mana').
Thus Ayurveda describes the definition of healthy person as 'One whose Humours ('Doshas') & Fire ('Agni'), Tissues ('Dhatus'), Mind ('Mana'), Sensory & Motor Organs ('Indriyas') and Soul or Spirit ('Atman') are in equilibrium and are in perfect harmony i.e. a homeostasis of these factors'. This means the human being who has the energy required for transformation & metabolism in the body, all the body structural material and sensory & motor functions ('Indriyas') in the body, Mind ('Mana') and Soul or Spirit ('Atman') in equilibrium is a perfect healthy person. This healthy human being is the prime concern and subject of Ayurveda. W.H.O. also accepts this definition.